Zinc finger protein 804A

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ZNF804A
Identifiers
AliasesZNF804A, C2orf10, zinc finger protein 804A
External IDsMGI: 2442949 HomoloGene: 18461 GeneCards: ZNF804A
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 2 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 2 (human)[1]
Chromosome 2 (human)
Genomic location for ZNF804A
Genomic location for ZNF804A
Band2q32.1Start184,598,366 bp[1]
End184,939,492 bp[1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_194250

NM_175513

RefSeq (protein)

NP_919226

NP_780722

Location (UCSC)Chr 2: 184.6 – 184.94 MbChr 2: 82.05 – 82.26 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Zinc finger protein 804A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZNF804A gene.[5] The human gene maps to chromosome 2 q32.1 and consists of 4 exons that code for a protein of 1210 amino acids (137 kDa).[6]

Little is known about the characteristics and function of the encoded protein. However, the protein sequence codes for a domain characteristic of a classical C2H2-type zinc finger near the N-terminal end.[6][7]

Interactions[edit]

ZNF804A binds to the N-terminus of ATXN1.[8]

Binding of DNA[edit]

The tertiary structure of the C2H2 finger consists of a beta hairpin folded against an alpha helix. The folding occurs via a zinc(II) ion that coordinates to two cysteine residues (one on each beta sheet) and two histidine residues (both on the α-helix).[9] ZNF804A might use its zinc finger to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner. For example, Carl Pabo and his colleagues in 1991 discovered that mouse transcription factor Zif268 binds DNA using three linked C2H2 zinc fingers. Amino acid residues sticking out from the α-helices of the zinc fingers interact with the guanine-rich region of the DNA double helix through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The spacing of the residues matches the spacing of the base pairs. Zinc fingers fit into the major groove and wrap around the DNA helix for almost one turn.[9]

Association with schizophrenia[edit]

In humans, ZNF804A is expressed broadly throughout the brain, especially in the developing hippocampus and the cortex, as well as in the adult cerebellum.[10] ZNF804A is expected to bind DNA and thus regulate gene expression like other zinc finger proteins.[6] The mouse homologue of ZNF804A, zfp804a, has recently been reported as a target for HOXC8, suggesting that ZNF804A may be involved in the regulation of early neurodevelopment.[7]

A Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified ZNF804A as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.[11] From family, twin, and adoption studies, schizophrenia is found to have heritability of ~80%[7] and it is suspected that risk results from multiple genetic variants of small effect. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 in intron 2 of ZNF804A has been identified as a variant that is most strongly associated with schizophrenia.[11]

The same SNP has been reported to correlate with slightly disturbed functional coupling of several brain regions in healthy persons, resembling the changes described in schizophrenia.[12][13][14] A further study revealed that the SNP rs1344706 was consistent with schizophrenia association in European patients, but not in Han Chinese patients. Moreover, the study showed that SNPs rs1021042 and rs359895 are associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese patients, and that the rs359895 allele increases the promoter activity of ZNF804A.[7] The results of another study suggest that there is no relationship between variant rs1344706 and impaired cognitive function in schizophrenia patients[6] and the results of yet another study indicate that ZNF804A also plays a role in how schizophrenia symptoms respond to antipsychotics.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170396 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000070866 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:".
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: Zinc finger protein 804A".
  6. ^ a b c d Walters JT, Corvin A, Owen MJ, Williams H, Dragovic M, Quinn EM, Judge R, Smith DJ, Norton N, Giegling I, et al. (July 2010). "Psychosis susceptibility gene ZNF804A and cognitive performance in schizophrenia". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 67 (7): 692–700. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.81. PMID 20603450.
  7. ^ a b c d Li M, Luo XJ, Xiao X, Shi L, Liu XY, Yin LD, Diao HB, Su B (December 2011). "Allelic differences between Han Chinese and Europeans for functional variants in ZNF804A and their association with schizophrenia". Am J Psychiatry. 168 (12): 1318–25. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11030381. PMID 21890790.
  8. ^ Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M, Zoghbi HY (May 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): 801–14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569.
  9. ^ a b Isalan M (2004). "Zinc fingers". In Lennarz WJ, Lane MD, Modrich P, Dixon J, Carafoli E, Exton J, Cleveland D. Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 435–439. doi:10.1016/B0-12-443710-9/00713-4. ISBN 0-12-443710-9.
  10. ^ Lencz T, Szeszko PR, DeRosse P, Burdick KE, Bromet EJ, Bilder RM, Malhotra AK (July 2010). "A Schizophrenia Risk Gene, ZNF804A, Influences Neuroanatomical and Neurocognitive Phenotypes". Neuropsychopharmacology. 35: 2284–2291. doi:10.1038/npp.2010.102. PMC 2939918. PMID 20664580.
  11. ^ a b O'Donovan MC, Craddock N, Norton N, Williams H, Peirce T, Moskvina V, Nikolov I, Hamshere M, Carroll L, et al. (September 2008). "Identification of loci associated with schizophrenia by genome-wide association and follow-up". Nat. Genet. 40 (9): 1053–5. doi:10.1038/ng.201. PMID 18677311.
  12. ^ Esslinger C, Walter H, Kirsch P, Erk S, Schnell K, Arnold C, Haddad L, Mier D, Opitz von Boberfeld C, Raab K, Witt SH, Rietschel M, Cichon S, Meyer-Lindenberg A (May 2009). "Neural mechanisms of a genome-wide supported psychosis variant". Science. 324 (5927): 605. doi:10.1126/science.1167768. PMID 19407193. Lay summarySchizophrenia And Manic-depressive Disorder: Genetic Variant Impairs Communication Within Brain.
  13. ^ "Schizophrenia-associated Variant in ZNF804A Gene Affects Brain Connectivity". Schizophrenia Research Forum.
  14. ^ Hill MJ, Jeffries AR, Dobson RJ, Price J, Bray NJ (March 2012). "Knockdown of the psychosis susceptibility gene ZNF804A alters expression of genes involved in cell adhesion". Hum. Mol. Genet. 21 (5): 1018–24. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr532. PMID 22080834.
  15. ^ Mössner R, Schuhmacher A, Wagner M, Lennertz L, Steinbrecher A, Quednow BB, Rujescu D, Rietschel M, Maier W (April 2012). "The schizophrenia risk gene ZNF804A influences the antipsychotic response of positive schizophrenia symptoms". Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 262 (3): 193–7. doi:10.1007/s00406-011-0235-1. PMID 21892778.